Mechanization of the hottest forging workshop

2022-08-02
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Mechanization of forging workshop I. significance and content of mechanization of forging workshop I. mechanization of forging production is an important way to improve labor productivity, reduce labor intensity and ensure safe production. At the same time, it is also of great significance to give full play to the potential of forging equipment, ensure the quality of forgings and improve the working environment and conditions, The contents of forging production mechanization are as follows:

1. blanking mechanization

sawing machine, shearing machine or press shall be used instead of manual sawing or heating cutting, and mechanized transportation device can be used

2. heating furnace operation and billet loading and unloading mechanization

mechanical devices are used to control the lifting of furnace door, billet loading and unloading, mobile or rotating furnace bottom, pushing machinery, etc

3. mechanization of forging operation

adopt forging hammer, crank press, hydraulic press, flat forging machine and other forging equipment, and apply mechanized process equipment, turnover machine and operating machine

4. workshop hoisting and transportation mechanization

various types of crane transportation machinery (such as bridge crane, single arm crane, electric hoist, etc.), mechanical conveying mechanism, transportation vehicles, etc. are used

some of the above aspects have been mentioned in the previous sections. This section will mainly give a brief and general introduction to the process equipment of the forging workshop and the mechanization of lifting and transportation

II. Simple mechanized device

(I) feeding fork (loading and unloading fork)

the simplest tool for loading and unloading blanks of indoor heating furnace is the feeding fork as shown in Figure 1. The heated blank is sent to the forging equipment by the feeding fork along with the crane. This feeding fork is mainly composed of a lever 2, a fork rod 1 with two fork legs 10 at the working end and a counterweight 3. The lifting ring 4 on the lever and figure 1 are side by side, which have the strength and durability of FRP; The hook 5 on the counterweight is used to hang the chain bars 8 and 9, the lever can swing around the shaft 7, and the lever can be fastened by the hoop 6

Fig. 1 feeding fork

1 - fork rod 2 - lever 3 - counterweight 4 - lifting ring 5 - hook 6 - hoop 7 - shaft 8 - chain 9 - chain 10 - fork foot

of course, lever 2 is not used for some feeding forks, because it is sometimes difficult to clamp the lever due to the influence of heat radiation

(II) tongs

in the forging workshop, tongs are always used in conjunction with the transportation crane. The commonly used tongs include simple self tightening tongs and automatic tongs

1. as shown in Figure 2, the simple self tightening clamp is a widely used lifting clamp for handling small blanks or forgings

Fig. 2 simple self tightening clamp

1 - chain link 2 - crane hook

2. see Fig. 3 for the structure of the automatic clamp. During operation, the support plate 1 makes the jaw open. When the blank enters the jaw and the Tong continues to move down, the jaw also increases. At the same time, the opening groove of the support plate slides out of the retaining pin, and the swing plate 3 swings around the small axis due to its own weight, blocking the opening groove. Therefore, when the tong is lifted and lifted, the jaw clamps the blank. With the cart carrying it to the designated place, when the blank is lowered and the Tong drops to the predetermined position, The stop pin falls into the open groove of the support plate, which opens the jaw to unload the blank, and the empty tong can rise

Figure 3 automatic revocation

1 ― support plate 2 ― small shaft 3 ― oscillating plate 4 ― retaining pin

automatic Tong is mainly used for loading and unloading ingots and billets of trolley type heating furnace to avoid high temperature radiation to the operator. It can also be used for handling and lifting in the workshop

(III) the tong handle sleeve

is forged on the hydraulic press, and the billet is mainly steel ingot. Therefore, in order to facilitate operation, it is necessary to use the tong handle sleeve to clamp and turn over the ingot, as shown in Figure 4. After the steel ingot is pressed out of the tong handle, it is inserted into the sleeve, which is sleeved on the circulating chain of the upender and then rotates around the axis. The movement of ingots on the flat anvil is completed by the movement of the forging crane of the hanging upender

Fig. 4 clamp handle sleeve for turning over ingot

1 - ingot 2 - sleeve 3 - turnover machine circulation chain 4 - sleeve rod

of course, for hydraulic presses equipped with operators, clamp handle sleeve belongs to an obsolete tool, or it is only used for the charging and discharging of ingots between fires

(IV) mechanized device for mold operation

mold forging has been widely used in the production of small batch forgings. Due to the heavy tire molds, some of them reach nearly 100 kg, which are carried down by workers, resulting in high physical labor intensity. The factory can make some tire molds to operate mechanized devices according to its own conditions, so as to meet the actual needs of production and reduce the physical labor of workers

the following describes two simple mechanized devices for mold operation

1. pneumatic tire mold device

the structure and operation of pneumatic tire mold are relatively simple. The pneumatic tire mold shown in Figure 5 is used on the air hammer below 1t. The upper mold 5 is connected with pin 4, and the lower mold 6 is connected with the mold lifting device with connecting rod 3. The nut 1 can be adjusted to meet the needs of replacing the upper tire mold with different thickness. The connecting rod 3 can make the lower tire mold work normally when its position changes in the vertical direction. The bolt 2 is used to limit the lifting height of the upper mold

Figure 5 pneumatic tire mold

1 - nut 2 - bolt 3 - connecting rod 4 - pin 5 - upper tire mold 6 - lower tire mold

as long as one person operates three combined valves to control the inlet and outlet of compressed air, the advance, retreat and lifting of tire mold can be realized

2. mold lifting device

Figure 6 is another simple mechanized device for mold operation below 1t hammer

Fig. 6 mold lifting device

1 - upper mold 2 - pin shaft 3 - splint 4, 6 - fastening screw 5 - bearing bearing with running speed 7 - lever 8 - sleeve handle 9 - lower mold

upper mold 1 is fastened with splint 3 through pin shaft 2 with screws 4 and 6. The central shaft sleeve is clamped between the two clamps and sleeved on the support shaft 5 fixed on the base, and the base is fastened on the workbench plate. The sleeve handle 8 is sleeved on the lever 7, and the length of the lever arm can be adjusted. The lower mold 9 is placed on the lower anvil, and the adjusting screws 4 and 6 can change the mold of different sizes. This mold device can be installed on the workbench of air hammer or splint hammer. The upper mold can move up and down with the help of the mold lifting device, swing left and right, and rotate with high control accuracy and measurement accuracy

III. lifting and transportation equipment and conveying mechanism

the installation and maintenance of equipment in the forging workshop, the transportation and transmission of raw materials, billets and forgings, the loading and unloading of tools and molds, and other non productive auxiliary operations are inseparable from various types of lifting and transportation equipment and conveying mechanism

the mechanical conveying mechanisms commonly used in the forging workshop include: chute, monorail, roller conveyor, chain conveyor, chain plate conveyor, scraper conveyor, belt conveyor, etc. See Table 1

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